The Earth is protected against corpuscular radiation by its magnetic field. This protective bubble around the Earth is the magnetosphere.
Transitional zone between space and the completely different atmospheric layers closer to the ground.
Similar to a boat that moves through water, the solar wind flow is affected by the presence of the Earth. The Earth's magnetic field contains a space filled with particles from terrestrial origin.
Earth's magnetic field, our protection against solar radiation, varies from one place to another and in time as well.
The visible phenomenon due to the flight of a meteoroid, a particle of debris in the Solar System, through the atmosphere is called a meteor.
The atmosphere of Mars does not have a protective ozone layer and contains 30 times less water vapour than Earth's atmosphere.
Due to a weak greenhouse effect the average temperature is about -63°C with huge differences between day and night.
The absence of plate tectonics and the very little volcanic activity are important to understand why Mars has a far smaller greenhouse effect than Earth.
Short fact note on the temperature, diameter, pressure, mountains, gravitation, natural satellites and the elements that give Mars' atmosphere its red colour.
Since methane on Earth is linked to microorganisms, methane measurements on Mars might lead to traces of past life.
For the design, the manufacturing and the usage of atmosphere measuring devices one needs electronics, mechanics, software, computing and technical skills.